Synergistic evaluation of Moringa oleifera extract and ß-lactam antibiotic to restore the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureu



PMID: Mol Biol Rep. 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22. PMID: 34807379 Abstract Title: Synergistic evaluation of Moringa oleifera extract andß-lactam antibiotic to restore the susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The antibiotic resistance has become a major threat to global health. The combinatorial use of two or more compounds to develop a new formulation may overcome the emerging cases of drug resistance. Moringa oleifera has been utilized as a strong nutritional, immunomodulator and therapeutic agent for decades. In this study, different parts of Moringa oleifera were screened for bioactive compounds that can act as a resistance modifying agent for multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs).METHODOLOGY: Initially, the combined effect of stem bark extracts and ampicillin was calculated by checkerboard assay. Active compounds of effective extract were assessed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) were calculated to evaluate the synergistic behavior of stem bark extract with ampicillin. To study the blocking of resistance pathways of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) western blot was performed.RESULTS: The results revealed that stem bark has significant anti-MRSA activity. The methanolic extract of stem bark in combination with ampicillin showed the highest synergistic effect (FICI value ≤ 0.237) against MRSA. Killing kinetics and membrane potential of ampicillin alone and in combination revealed an increase in the inhibitory potential of ampicillin against MRSA. Decolourization in iodometric assay confirmed the inhibition of β-lactamase, western blot results confirmed the blocking of penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a) expression with the restoration of MRSA sensitivity against β-lactams.CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera stem bark has bioactive compounds and can be used as an adjuvant with antibiotics to modify the resistance of MDROs.
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