The role of immunomodulatory nutrients in alleviating complications related to SARS-CoV.



PMID: Adv Nutr. 2021 Dec 21. Epub 2021 Dec 21. PMID: 34932789 Abstract Title: The Role of Immunomodulatory Nutrients in Alleviating Complications Related to SARS-CoV-2: A Scoping Review. Abstract: The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has warranted the need to investigate potential therapies or prophylaxis against this infectious respiratory disease. There is emerging evidence about the potential role of nutrients on COVID-19 in addition to using medications such as hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. This scoping review aims to explore the literature evaluating the effect of immunomodulatory nutrients on the outcomes including hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, oxygen requirement, and mortality in COVID-19 patients. A literature search of databases including Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, and PubMed, as well as hand-searching in Google Scholar (up to 10 February 2021) was conducted. All human studies with different study designs and without limitation on publication year were included except for non-English-language and review articles. Overall, out of 4412 studies, 19 met our inclusion criteria. Four studies examined the impact of supplementation with vitamin C, 4 studies - zinc, 8 studies - vitamin D, and 3 studies investigated the combination of 2 (zinc and vitamin C) or 3 (vitamin D, vitamin B-12, and magnesium) nutrients. Although limited data exist, available evidence demonstrated that supplementation with immune-supportive micronutrients such as vitamins D and C and zinc may modulate immunity and alleviate the severity and risk of infection. The effectiveness of vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc on COVID-19 was different based on baseline nutrient status, the duration and dosage of nutrient therapy, time of administration, and severity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease. This review indicated that supplementation with high-dose vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc may alleviate the complications caused by COVID-19, including inflammatory markers, oxygen therapy, length of hospitalization, and mortality; however, studies were mixed regarding these effects. Further randomized clinical trials are necessary to identify the most effective nutrients and the safe dosage to combat SARS-CoV-2.
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